Demand Respond Program and Dynamic Thermal Rating System for Enhanced Power Systems
1 Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University (NCHU), 145 Xing Da Road, South District, Taichung 402, Taiwan;* Correspondence: email@example.com;
Received: 1/10/2021, First revision: 12/11/2021, Accepted: 25/11/2021, Published: 22/12/2021
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This paper reviews the development of demand response (DR) and dynamic thermal rating (DTR) system for enhancing the operation and reliability of power system. The advantages and prospect of the DR program are discussed. The case for DTR system is established by comparing it against the traditional static thermal rating (STR) system. Various line monitoring methods and devices required for the implementation of the DTR system are presented. The challenges for deploying the DTR system from the perspective of selecting appropriate transmission lines for DTR deployment, identifying critical spans for deploying DTR sensors, managing the reliability of the DTR system, and the integration of the DTR system with existing and future power systems are discussed. Finally, the two main standards governing the operation of the DTR system, namely the IEEE 738 standard and the CIGRE standard are compared to elucidate the employability of the DTR system.
1. A case for Demand Response
Past studies show that a significant amount
of electricity can be saved with proper demand-side management strategies . Therefore,
it is one of the motivations to find out what is demand-side management
strategy is and how is it being implemented. One way to increase the power
transmission line's capacity is through a demand-side management program. There
are two paths in electrical demand-side management. The first is through a demand
response program, and the second is through implementing an electrical
efficiency program. The electrical efficiency program methods effect mostly
constant with time, while demand response program effects vary. However, the
implementation of an electrical efficiency program usually involves investment
cost, while a demand response program involves implementing managerial measures
to free up the generating/transmitting capacity by influencing the load demand.
Electrical demand response programs focus on how the electrical demand is
planned to avoid big variation between peak and low demand. A capital grant or
feed-in tariff-based incentive policy were normally suggested to encourage the
use of renewable energy to implement electrical efficiency program strategies
successfully, but renewable energy equipment installation such as solar panel,
wind turbine, etc. were found to be challenging due to many barriers such as
cost, renewable source availability, etc. .
An electrical demand response program is a
tariff or program established to induce lower electricity consumption during
peak demand or when grid reliability is jeopardized. There is significant scope
for the Electrical demand response program to increase the efficiency and use
of electrical system assets such as overhead transmission lines, generators,
etc. Demand-side management has been studied since the early 1980s. It can be
used as a tool to accomplish different load shaping objectives, such as valley
filling, peak clip-ping, load shifting, strategic conservation, strategic load
growth and flexible load shape . A study showed that lower energy is
required to purchase from the grid due to the electrical demand response
program . An overview of multiple electrical demand response programs and their
theoretical background was provided by  and  studied their presence in
few countries. A lot of studies are being conducted in the field of electrical
demand response program in different categories, which include intelligent
appliances , energy management systems [8-10], load shifting , smart
grids ,, power quality , comfort optimization , demand
aggregation , integration of renewable energy , contracts , pricing
, risk management .
Electrical demand response programs are
divided into two groups. The first group is incentive base demand response
program, while the second type is the price base program .
Demand response program is one of the
well-known programs used extensively to optimize energy systems with other
performances economically. Demand response program includes different series of
optimization programs . TOU flattens the load curve by shifting some load
from peak o off-peak periods, which minimizes the total cost .
There are two types of main categories of
demand-side management as shown in Fig. 1. First is the static demand-side
management program, which aims to equilibrate energy via control of energy
consumption. Static demand-side management comprises activities such as advertisements
or educations to encourage end-users to change their typical energy consumption
pattern without onus, but the complete implementation of these methods purely
depends on the customers’ volition eventually. Dynamic demand side is the
second category of demand-side management. Onus of clients and their
participation in integrated resources planning to attain demand-side management
goals is required for dynamic side demand management. These methods aim to
equilibrate energy via control of efficiency .
In conclusion, a demand response program motivates energy consumers to interact with energy suppliers by introducing electricity price or compensation. The demand response program takes advantage of controllable loads to improve the system's power quality during peak demand conditions.
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